⚠️ This page is outdated, we are working on a new version ⚠️
Table of contents
- ⚠️ This page is outdated, we are working on a new version ⚠️
- Basic Setup
- Preparation & basic setup
- Generate Bandwidth Stats with vnstat(i)
- Local DNS server
- High Bandwidth Tweaks (>100 mbps?)
- AES-NI Crypto Acceleration
- We currently use Debian; Ubuntu LTS is another good valid option.
- Git: we keep some scripts, configuration files and templates in a git repository. We clone the git repository to the local system and use symlinks when possible. For easier re-use in parts, the example documentation below uses direct links to the configuration files at Github.
SSH key authentication only
- We use g10code GnuPG Smartcards for ssh auth; see some notes at moba installnotes or more verbose writeup by flamsmark
- ssh config with password auth and PAM disabled, no root login, x11forwarding disabled - change port to some port of your chosing above 1024 (when using multiple IPs: bind to one IP only)
ssh-copy-id -p $SSH_PORT user@server
This example config uses the iptables-persistent package, and by default allows world access to a random SSH port 23942 and ports 80,443 which we use for Tor. Think about limiting SSH to an IP (range) you can connect from, or use portknocking. Also, this config is optimized for high bandwidth relays: in order to avoid the conntrack module, it allows all UDP in.
sudo apt install iptables-persistent cd /etc/iptables wget -O iptables.v4 https://raw.githubusercontent.com/torservers/server-config-templates/master/iptables.test.rules # you need to at least customize SSH port in it now or you will lock yourself out... # for ipv6, add rules in /etc/iptables/iptables.v6 service iptables-persistent start
Some useful defaults
# configure hostname hostname yourservername.xyz vi /etc/hostname # also use yourservername.xyz vi /etc/hosts # update to yourservername.xyz yourservername # disable debian default that pulls in recommended packages: cd /etc/apt/apt.conf.d wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/torservers/server-config-templates/master/06norecommends apt update && apt full-upgrade apt install sudo git less htop nload screen \ ntp apticron vnstat logcheck logcheck-database lsb-release apt remove --purge portmap sed -i -e 's/^# DIFF_ONLY/DIFF_ONLY/' /etc/apticron/apticron.conf # make apticron send diffs only vnstat -u -i eth0 # setup vnstat for correct interface cd /etc mv aliases aliases.dist wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/torservers/server-config-templates/master/aliases sed -i 'email@example.comfirstname.lastname@example.org/' /etc/aliases newaliases
We upgrade from all available package sources, let it reboot if necessary, and send mail on errors. A reasonable configuration could be to limit upgrades to the security sources. (see comments in 50unattended-upgrades)
apt install unattended-upgrades update-notifier-common wget -p -O /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/50unattended-upgrades https://raw.githubusercontent.com/torservers/server-config-templates/master/50unattended-upgrades cp /usr/share/unattended-upgrades/20auto-upgrades /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/20auto-upgrades # enable
- anonymizing relay monitor (arm) http://www.atagar.com/arm/ for direct Tor node observation
- vnstat for bandwidth stats
- munin for monitoring
Preparation & basic setup
See Installation of correct packages for Debian/Ubuntu
for multi-process installations, use tor-instance-create
Which Ports Should I Use?
We not using a standalone webserver on our relay servers.
Generate Bandwidth Stats with vnstat(i)
You can generate local graphs and render them as images with vnstati. You could serve these images with a webserver. We don’t use this any longer.
apt install vnstati # create empty files in root-owned /var/www and change owner to www-data cd /var/www touch vnstat.png vnstat_d.png vnstat_m.png vnstat.xml chown www-data:www-data vnstat*.* # set up cron job crontab -u www-data -e
*/10 * * * * /usr/bin/vnstati -vs -o /var/www/vnstat.png -i eth0 >/dev/null 2>&1 ;fi */10 * * * * /usr/bin/vnstati -d -o /var/www/vnstat_d.png -i eth0 >/dev/null 2>&1 ;fi 1 3 * * * /usr/bin/vnstati -m -o /var/www/vnstat_m.png -i eth0 >/dev/null 2>&1 ;fi 1 3 * * * /usr/bin/vnstat --xml > /var/www/vnstat.xml 2>/dev/null ;fi
Local DNS server
- we use unbound, a local caching DNS server
- more and more people report problems with unbound; you might want to use 'named' instead.
- for optimizations of unbound, see http://www.unbound.net/documentation/howto_optimise.html; we don't use any of them at the moment, it just works fine out of the box
- many people use Google DNS, and it is indeed among the better choices of free DNS. do not use openDNS or other DNS providers that filter DNS requests. for a discussion, see also Reminder: exit nodes probably shouldn't be using Google's DNS servers
apt install unbound vi /etc/resolv.conf # insert top: nameserver 127.0.0.1
Munin Resource Monitoring
apt install -y munin-node ln -s /usr/share/munin/plugins/netstat /etc/munin/plugins/netstat rm /etc/munin/plugins/http_loadtime rm /etc/munin/plugins/ntp_* rm /etc/munin/plugins/postfix_* rm /etc/munin/plugins/exim_* sed "s/allow \\^127\\\.0\\\.0\\\.1\\$/allow ^81\\\.7\\\.13\\\.16$/" -i /etc/munin/munin-node.conf /etc/init.d/munin-node restart
High Bandwidth Tweaks (>100 mbps?)
You might also be interested in this tor-relay thread regarding high speed relay tweaks: How to Run High Capacity Tor Relays
In general, as with all optimizations: you should only apply those that are necessary for you.
Multiple Tor Processes
Currently, Tor does not scale on multicore CPUs. If the CPU supports AES-NI crypto extensions (most modern CPUs do), one Tor process is able to handle around 400 Mbps of throughput – without AES-NI, around 100 Mbps. If your connection supports more, you will need to run multiple Tor processes. For this, on current Debian/Ubuntu releases, Tor comes with a helper to manage multiple instances.
Note that running more than two tor processes per IP address will result in those other nodes not being used on the network. You’ll see the following message in your logs:
[notice] Heartbeat: It seems like we are not in the cached consensus.
tor-instance-create <name> # torrc for new instance is in /etc/tor/instances/<name>/torrc systemctl enable tor@<name> # create symlinks for auto-launch of the new instance systemctl start tor@<name> systemctl mask tor@default # disable the default tor service
Done! On systems without systemd, you need to manually configure DataDirectory and PidFile in the torrc.
sysctl.conf kernel optimizations
Please only tweak kernel settings when necessary! Don’t change all at once, pick the ones that make sense and try them one by one over several weeks. Monitor changes carefully.
cd /etc mv sysctl.conf sysctl.conf.dist wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/torservers/server-config-templates/master/sysctl.conf # go through the settings once again! some only useful with large memory and CPU # better tweaking probably possible; magic involved sysctl -p
Set MaxBandwidth to line maximum, eg. for GBit:
sed "s/MaxBandwidth 100/MaxBandwidth 1000/g" -i /etc/vnstat.conf /etc/init.d/vnstat restart # don't reload; will stop vnstat from updating its db...
Might be useful in some cases. Only optimize when you need to!
# remove "exit" from rc.local, then echo 'ifconfig eth0 txqueuelen 20000' >> /etc/rc.local # Play with it. For GBit I've found values between 8000 and 16000 to be very useful, but it is hardware dependent
AES-NI Crypto Acceleration
Recent Intel and AMDs support a native AES crypto acceleration extension called AES-NI. It is well worth enabling and will save a lot of CPU cycles.
Some motherboards ship with AES-NI disabled. You can check if it is enabled:
# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep aes flags : fpu [..] popcnt **aes** xsave [..] vpid